Two Disasters

What do we have when two people do not think they should be ruler over them? A war, well for this situation we have the king and the popes. The king thinks they have a far bit of control over the church. Than the popes say they have the power to completely get rid of the king and replace him with a new one.

So the Defensor Pacis by Marsilius of Padua, is a huge argument against the popes. His argument is that a Council is going to set above the popes. Main point is that there is no head that has authority over any one but for the organization of the catholic religion. He further say’s that man’s law should be put first. Of course he say’s if it disagrees with the catholic law, than obey that. The only authority the pope has he declares, is calling an ecumenical council ( which is set above him). And what the ecumenical council decides is the only thing the pope can enforce. Than above the ecumenical council is the Emperor or king.

Now if we have twenty percent of the population die, doesn’t it seem like something happened. Turns out just about two horrific disasters happening at once. First disaster was the failure of many crops. This was caused by lowered temperatures, thus being called a tiny Ice age. Our second disaster was the times the Bubonic plague, and the pneumonic plague attack, know as the black death. The Bubonic plague was delivered by rats getting off merchant ships, which then the flees on the rats go and bite every one. The pneumonic plague was delivered through coughing and sneezing. The effects was a famine, and loss of labor. Because the was no food, and since there where hundreds of people dyeing; there was not enough labor to harvest any crops. So the laborers wanted money instead of protection, and the fact that there was a shortage. The workers charged a hefty sum.

Than the landlords went to the government, they made it worse. All the prices where going to be fixed and every one where to act like the plague and the famine was not here. These where the effects of the black death. Thank you for reading!

Western civilization I, lesson 145, 8/19/2022

The year of our Lord 1778, March 10th

The year of our Lord 1778, March 10. With the days becoming more brighter, and the memory of those long, dark, cloudy days now past, it was now time to resume are long journey. Our assignment was, “deliver this package to a man in the Black forest and do be sure Adalhard to prepare for a long journey.” Unfortunately, our journey began back in February. For about two days into our journey there was a blizzard forcing us to find some shelter. To preserve my shot for bigger animals, but still in need of food. I searched throughout the forest and I came up with an idea. I got my self a stick hollowed it out, than made a few darts, and there ya have it a blow dart gun. This allowed me to make my own ammo and shoot down a couple of birds.

Once back at our little lean two, It told my partner Duncan what I have been up to. “Hmm, not bad of an idea, But I have a even better Idea.” ” Lets see if we can get a fire going Hmm?” The fire was quickly built, for it was very icy cold out. Of course my idea was still quite useful, for we did not have the desired amount of food for this long of a stay. Not much happened during those long dreary days. But I am glad they are past. But man do we still have about another week of our journey left, hope I all goes well. Thanks for reading!

English 6th, lesson 130, 8/18/2022

The Place I Would Live

Germany, that would be the place I would like to live. I like the food, the landscape. Some of the culture. Once there I would find myself a 100 acer property, Build myself a house, and start a carpentry business.

Scotland, that would be another place I would like to live. I like the food, landscape, culture. I would like to live there because the Cummings originated in Scotland. So thus I can walk up and claim my inheritance of the Cummings estate.

All of the east coast of America, Some where along there I would love to live. Reason Is the landscape, food, culture. Also would be a easer move. But again the forest the, coast, and the country side. Thus I would do find myself a 100 acer property, build my self a house and a shop, and start selling hand made furniture.

My point is I like the countryside. And if I like the the country, the culture food et. than these are the areas I would like to live at. Thank you for reading!

English lesson 125, 8/9/2022


In history, what do you see the most? The want for POWER. Lets look again into history. What do we see? The pope and the kings fighting for POWER.

The first fight that I will be on is when Frederick Barbarossa was Holy Roman Emperor (1155-1190). The reason for the fight between Frederick and pope alexander III. Is, Frederick wanted full control over the empire, also over the popes. And the Popes wanted there independence.

Our second fight is between Alexander II, This time the pope voted for another family called the Welfs. Number one, It meant that the kingdom was spilt between two families. Number two, that meant that the pope would not be surrounded by one family. But this did not turn out. The person from the Welfs family turned back on the popes. So they put Alexander II in. Before he was put in office, they made him make promises that he would not join the kingdom. unfortunately he did join the kingdom. Also he did just what his father did, but he just wanted power over a pacific town.

Conclusion, what do we see. The popes wanted control over the kingdom. Also the kings wanted control of the kingdom, and over the church. As with our first example Frederick wanted to join the whole empire. He also wanted to put popes in that he could control. Same with our second example Frederick II did not want to be controlled by the popes. But then the popes wanted there independence from the king. So then they can control him. Thank you for reading!

Western civilization I, lesson 140, 8/9/2022

My Favorite Character

I’m back again! And this time your reading this because you want to know my favorite character. Simply put, that character is, Amuba, From the “The Cat of Bubastes.” He is from a country called the Rebu.

This story begins a long long time ago, in a far away land. A time when the Egyptians where the most powerful kingdom in all the land. But our story really doesn’t start in Egypt, but in the land of the Rebu.

About this time was when the Egyptians where come forth to attack. The Rebu on the other hand where defending. So they planned to meet the Egyptians with a swamp in front, this would be a barrier. Keeping the chariots from easily attacking.

Unfortunately this did not go to plan and the Rebu were forced to a full retreat. They also had lost there king. This meant his son Amuba, would be king. Even worse, the Egyptians besieged the city. Amuba now king, prepared the city for defense. But was to late the tide could not be turned and the city was taken.

The Egyptians only set up a garrison and took majority of the people slaves. Once in Egypt, Amuba is chosen to be a buddy and a help to a Priest son. And this story continues as Amuba and Chebron go on adventures and become close friends. Thank you for reading!

English 6th, lesson 120, 8/9/2022

The Rise of The Town, and Western Europe’s Economic Success

Are topic is where did towns come from? They where created as the result of Cathedrals and monasteries. Cathedrals and monasteries usually had a school. Students at this school would need supplies, living quarters etc. This would bring merchants and commercial activity.

Another way towns where formed was the cause of barbarians. People would create fortifications to protect themselves from the barbarian raids. This attracted merchants. Saying to themselves these people are going to need supplies; what an opportunity.

Now, the significance of these towns, is they allowed many new opportunities. Such as, if you had no land, you could get a job being an apprentice. It allowed a place for merchants to gather. It also allowed for serfs there freedom. How this worked is, if a serf had lived in the town without the lord’s knowledge, for a year and a day. Then he would be declared free.

My second topic for this essay is Europe’s economic success. Here is the key reason for this, “political decentralization.” This means, instead of having one guy control all of Russia; each town and city controls itself, with much less control. This allowed for much freedom of moment of the merchants. This also hindered government more. Meaning crazy laws, and taxations will make people want to leave. because all people had to do was move to another town.

Thus, when ever another town allowed more freedom which allows freedom to grow. Thus becoming the wealthiest, than other towns would try and copy this. Again growing the economy even further.

When you start attracting merchants, and commercial activity. Your liable to have made a town. Now in order to grow this town you need not to steal every ones rights to want to do any thing. Thank you for reading!

Western civilization I, lesson 135, 8/5/2022

The Mind and The War Theory

God, All powerful, Just, and merciful. How would we Find him? First off, he guides us to him. Second, he gave us the King James Bible. But, what about using the brains God gave us? Now here are some of Thomas Aquinas’s Argument on the Existence of God.

This point of view starts off with, motion. When I move a rock with a stick, what is moving the rock? Because the rock does have the potential to move, but what is going to move it? It is the hand that is going to push it. But, If I wanted to go do something ell’s and cut off my hand; that’s not going to continually push the rock. So we can continually go on about what is going to fulfill the potential of moving the rock. But, the point that Thomas Aquinas is making here is that the final member that is actualizes all the perfect potentials, points to God.

Now my Second point of this essay is The main principles of the just-war theory. This started going when St. Augustin made several comments about War. We will be using the three requirements that Thomas Aquinas gave.

First one, is “The authority of the sovereign by whose command the war is to be waged.” This means that the US president can not start a war, the right authority must do that.

Second principle, “A just cause is required”. This means, you don’t just attack any one for no reason. Or you can not attack some one if it is not a just cause.

The third principle is ” it is necessary that the belligerents should have a rightful intention, so that they intend the advancement of the good, on the avoidance of the evil.” This means you don’t attack some one in anger, and you just fight for your rights. This way It keeps the intent of the war clear, and that the apposed is not going to be slaughtered completely. Thank you for reading!

Western civilization I, lesson 130, 8/4/2022

The Book Report of The century

Down the Road went Phileas Fogg. Each step in count, and not a millisecond waisted. Why such perfect timing? Also where is this man going? But, when it was all said and done my friends. To whom did we give this great honor to. Ladies and gentlemen! That honor was given because of a man, and his servant, Passepartout; made there way all around the world in just 80 days. So will any one join me and go to the back of this room and buy a book from Jules Verne. So you and I can experience going around the world, in just 80 days. Also there just 10 cent’s each.

The Staring to this story starts in 1872, England, No. 7, Saville Row, Burlington Gardens. Phileas Fogg, a man of great discipline, fired his servant on the 2nd of October. For he brought in a cup of water at 84 degrees Fahrenheit, instead of 86 degrees Fahrenheit. In need of a new servant, a French man named Passepartout, shows up to see if he could still take the job, and he gets it.

From there he goes back to his apartment, and then tells Passepartout to prepare for the journey. Down through France they went and on to a boat across the Mediterranean sea. Now through to the Red sea, and finally stopping at Bombay India. Crossing India we get on another boat, and head to Hong Kong. Then on to Yokohama, From there it across the Pacific ocean. Landing at California San Francisco. All the way to New York, so they can get on another boat and make it back to England.

Wait! before you go I am required to tell you what I thought about this book. I thought It was great. The beautiful details of the culture, the buildings. But also the thrilling excitement of are they going to make it? And that’s it, thank you for reading!

English lesson 110, 8/2/2022.

3 in One

Twelfth century, what do we get from this era? What about the universities? Hmm, one more, what about Scholastic philosophy? Just to let ya know, these are my question for this essay you are reading.

First question I asked ” What do we get from the era of the Twelfth century”? For a simple explanation, is that, it was the rise of Greek, and Roman text, Roman laws, and thought. Such as Aristotle for math, geometry, than Hippocrates for medicine.

Now the problem that we have here was that, if you wanted to learn science it was the study of Aristotle. If you want to study medicine you would study Hippocrates. So they took it a bit too far.

Back to my earlier mention of Roman law. The part of Roman law that was popularized was more control, instead of more freedom for the people.

My second question that I had ask was “What about the universities?” To start this questions off, in order to start a universities, it would be required to get a charter by the pope. These universities had a fixed curriculum. As in the past you had no guide of study. Which brought in the system of degrees. At this point in time which is around 1300-1500 century, there was a Undergraduate, graduate, and a masters degree.

But what was most unique was the fact that when is was time to graduate. They would test you by having a debate. You would here both sides and try to come up with a answer that would sympathize with both of the arguments.

Finally we have come down to the last question, what about Scholastic philosophy? Here is the basic explanation of Scholastic philosophy; “the examination of reason and faith with the expectation that faith and reason will reinforce each other and not being in conflict with one another.” Thank you for Reading!

Western civilization I, lesson 125, 7/19/2022

3 In One

What do we have here? A group that goes contrary to The Catholic church. Hmmm, Wait I forgot something who where they? Ah yes the Albigensians. The people that believed that you should not take a oath. You should not eat meat.

If you go further into what they believed, it gets even worse. They believed that there was a good god and a bad god. If you take in consideration that Humans are sinful. Then they add on to the belief that the body is a prison to the soul. Thus rejecting the sacraments. than they even believed that woman with child is shameful. because she is bring more good to be imprisoned.

Also if you wanted to know the albigensians had two sections The prefect and the believers. The perfect where the ones who did not get married, did not eat meat, and would live completely according to the beliefs. The believers where the ones who believed it, but would only would try to become perfect later on, because of certain circumstances.

Wait! what happened during the Thirteenth century? What about the mendicant orders? To keep it simple for ya, it was started by a guy who miss read the word of God. His name is Franciscan of Assisi. But here is a little story of how it all got started.

One day Francis had a dream. This dream was about him repairing the church. So what would most people then think? God must be calling me to fix up churches. So he goes out and starts fixing churches. His father ( a merchant) did not like this and though he should do something that earns an income. So he takes him to Pope Innocent III. The night before he goes to see the pope, he has another dream. this time he is supporting the church. So now he believes he needs to fix the church spiritually. Of course the pope likes him and that is how the mendicant orders got started.

Finally be fore we leave and you go off and read something else; let me tell you about the Significance of the Magna Carta. The Magna Carta was a set in stone law for every one. Because at the time there was Merchant laws Anglo Saxon laws, common law, and the list goes on and on. So that is why the Magna Carta was made. But this goes even further. Today if you look at our court system, we have the system of guilty or incent. Or you are not allow to use torture’s to get evidence. This is the end of my three in one topics, thank you for reading!

Western civilization I, lesson 120, 7/18/2022